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a) Pre-Paid Postage
The World's first public postal system began in 1838 in NSW.
b) Xerox Copying (Xerography)
Professor O. U. Vonwiller made quick copies of printed pages in 1907 at the University of Sydney.
c) Polymer Bank Notes
To prevent counterfeiting this money was developed by CSIRO & NPA of Reserve Bank of Australia in 1988.
Donald Murray of Sydney (NZ born) made a machine for recording telegraph messages onto paper tape in 1898.
When Europeans arrived in Australia they had to make do with materials that were at hand. Supplies from the UK were unreliable. This creativity has persisted in Australian technological development⚫
a) Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer
This machine which measures the amount of metal in a sample was invented by Sir A. Walsh of CSIRO in 1952.
b) AustraIia's Largest Solar Tower
CSIRO set a tower turbine 30 meters high in 2012. It generates electricity from 450 heleostat mirrors.
c) Australia Telescopic Compact Array ATCA
Telescopes at Parkes and Coonabarabran combine to create a large triple telescope; opened 1988.
d) Blast Glass
Peter Stephinson in 2003 made blast resistant glass that has an air cavity between two panes of glass.
e) Carbon Nanotube Yarns
In 2000s CSIRO's K. Atkinson discovered carbon nanotube fibres for artificial muscles & satellite tethers.
f) Distance Measuring Equipment (DME)
Device measures distance by delaying VHF and UHF signals perfected in 1955 by E. Bowen of the CSIRO.
g) Double Pulsar Discovery
CSIRO's Parkes Radio Telescope assisted in discovering the only double pulsar that we know of in 2003.
h) Flame Ionization Detector
Measures emissions to one part in 19 million and was invented in 1957 by Ian McWiIIiam.
i) Froth Flotation
Charles Potter & Guillaume Delprat of BHP had the idea in 1903 to purify liquids using flotation of mineral waste.
j) Gigabit Wireless Network
Computers will transfer data wirelessly as fast as cable. CSIRO succeeded in a test at six gigabites in 2005.
k) Mill Cross Antenna Array
Consisting of two rods made into a cross this ground antenna was developed in 1953 by B. Y. Mills of CSIRO.
l) Over the Horizon Radar Jindalee Radar System
HF radio signal beamed to ionosphere then refracted over the horizon, began 1970; perfected by CSIRO in 1995.
m) Parkes Telescope
The CSIRO Parkes Radio Telescope built in 1951 assisted the ground breaking lunar landing in 1959.
n) Polilght Forensic Lamp
The Unilite by M. Stoilovic & R. Warrender in 1989 made almost invisible fingerprints on forged art much clearer.
o) QemSCAN MineraI Analyses
Rapid mineral analysis used by mining companies and forensic science, perfected 2003 at CSIRO.
p) Rainforest Classification Grid
In the 1950s/60s L. Webb, G. Tracey and B. Williams of CSIRO created a grid for classifying plants in rainforests.
q) Seafloor Mining
CSIRO's Dr R. Binns found gold & copper in volcanic hydrothermal sites on seafloor 1997 voyages began 1985.
r)Sensitive High Resolution Ion Microprobe (SHRIMP)
This machine is used to accurately· date rock. It began at ANU in the 1970s and was commercialized in 1998.
From 1992 to 2000s CSIRO led in nano level high power supercapacitors, charge & discharge together, long life.
Synthetic rock to safely store nuclear waste by Dr Ted Ringwood of ANU in 1978. No country has tested it yet.
u) Synthetic Resin
CSIRO 2005 team led by Dr C. Elvin made synthetic resin from elastic protein used for jumping in insects.
v) Transparent Nanotube Sheets
Individual carbon nanotubes sheets used to bond plastics, electrodes, conductors & LEDs, CSIRO in 2005.
w) Waterfowl Breeding Determination
H. Frith CSIRO 1950s found waterfowl reproduction was determined by receding flood in Murray-Darling River.
a) Australian Rules Football
T. Wills created the game which became the Australia Football League (AFL) from Gaelic football/rugby in 1858.
b) First Football Rules
In 1858 T. Wills, W. Hammersley, J. Thompson & T. Smith wrote AFL rules before Sheffield soccer club rules.
c) International Ski Tournament
AustraIia organized the world`s first international skiing event in 1907/8 at Kiandra.
This sport was formalized by Mr and Mrs Edward Hirst of Sydney with the help of Alf Pitty in 1938.
e) Race Cam
G. Healy of ATN Seven TV covered Bathurst 1979 by cameras in cars with signals relayed via helicopters.
f) Super Sopper
In 1974 Gordon Withnall made a machine to clear rain water from sports grounds.
g) Surf Life-Saving Reel
Lyster Ormsby showed his new reel for rescuing swimmers on beaches in 1905 at Bondi Beach.
h) Surf Ski
An ordinary surf board was adapted for use as an oar driven device in 1912 by Harry and Jack McLaren.
i) Tote (totalizator)
In 1913 Sir G. Julius created the automatic totalisator to calculated odds as money was laid on horse races.
j) Wave Piercing Catamaran
Phillip Hercus and Robert Clifford of Incat made this high speed stable boat In 1984: idea conceived 1983.
k) Winged Keel
T0 win the America's Cup Ben Lexcen developed the winged keel for Australia II in 1983.
a) Aircraft Inflatable Escape Chute
In 1955 Jack Grant made an inflatable escape chute for use by passenger aircraft. It could also be used as a raft.
b) Black Box Flight Recorder
To record the last few minutes before a plane crash, Dr D. Warren invented the black box in Melbourne, in 1958.
c) Cargo Scanner
Gamma rays & neutrons find illegal objects in aircraft luggage & containers; CSIRO tech developed 2000s.
d) Car Radio (first)
In 1924 KeIly's Motors was first car company in Australia to put a radio in a car. World first G. Frost of US in 1922.
To improve turning David Shearer made a differential for a steam car, 1897 in South Australia.
f) Interscan Microwave Landing System
P. Wild, B. Cooper, D.Cooper, and H. Minnett's new landing assistance for aircraft, CSIRO 1970s.
g) Low Emission Cars
CSIRO, 2000s, assisted development of low-emmission vehicles: Holden ECDmmodore and aXcessaustraliaLEV.
h) Robotic Visual Horizon
University of Queensland examined bees by computer for a way for small aircraft to find the horizon in 2010.
i) Orbital Engine
An engine by Ralph Sarich in 1972 with single rotating "piston"; fuel injected into 5 combustion chambers.
j) Safety Propellor
Propellor devised by Colin Chamberlain stops injury when people put hands near moving propellor, 2009.
k) Plastic Coating
Dr V. Gutowski of CSIRO from 1988 coated plastic car body parts with conductive layer, attracts sprayed paint.
l) Powered FIight
In 1894 first engine powered box kite flew 5 meters: Lawrence Hargrave never patented the aircraft.
m) Pulsar Automotive Battery
In the 1970s Bill McDowell of Dunlop invented the Pulsar battery to start a car even when the battery is flat.
n) Rack & Pinion Steering
This steering system perfected by Arthur Bishop in 1970 was adopted for motor vehicles worldwide.
o) Round the World Airline
Qantas started an airline service travelling around the world in 1958.
p) Scramjet (first successful flight)
Rockets will take in oxygen as they move forward; work of a team led by Professor Allan Paull in 1992-2002.
q) Silicon-chip Electronic Ignition
An electronic silicon-chip system for starting engines was developed in 1976 by John and Angelo Notarus brothers.
The British honored Lance de La Mole inventor of the chain-rail tank 1912, making him honorary corporal,1919.
Superior battery from CSIRO 2000s has a supercapacitor giving four times more power, cheaper, extends life.
Lewis Brandt cut off the back of a Ford to make the first pick-up motor car in 1934 at Geelong in Victoria.
u) Video Black Box for Trucks
Jimmy Goldsmith in 2010 made an automatic video recording system for trucks that operates continually.
a) Aspro (aspirin in Europe)
Found naturally in the Amazon jungles aspro was made chemically by Alfred Nicholas of Melbourne in 1915.
b) Bionic Ear
A team led by Professor Graeme Clark developed the bionic ear in 1978 at the University of Melbourne.
c) Braces for teeth
Percy Begg made very cheap braces for teeth with lightweight stainless steel in the 1940s.
d) Cervical Cancer Vaccine
Gardasil was developed in 2005 by Prof. Ian Frazer and Jian Zhou to treat cancer caused by the papillomavirus.
e) CPAP (Continuous Positive Airflow Pressure mask)
Prof. C. Sullivan made an oxygen flow mask to treat snoring breathing difficulties at Sydney University, 1981.
f) First Embryo Baby
A woman gave birth to the first frozen embryo baby at the Queen Victoria Medical centre of Melbourne in 1984.
g) Flying Doctor Service
Reverend John Flynn established the first aerial medical service, Royal Flying Doctor Service (RFDS) in 1928.
h) Gene Shears (hammerhead Ribozyme 1980/hairpin RNAi 1990)
In 1985 W. Gerlach & J. Haseloff of CSIRO identified hammerhead ribozyme to switch off disease-genes.
i) Hendra Virus Identified equine morbillivirus
Discovered by BIRD in 1994 from racehorse samples in Queensland. Two men & 14 horses died; total now 4.
j) Insulin Receptor Structure
In 2005 a team led by Colin Ward of BIRD identified the structure of the insulin receptor on the outside of the cell.
k) Iodine Treatment
A CSIRO team led by Basil Hetzel injected iodine into pregnant women, 1960s; prevented baby retardation.
l) NovoSorb Biodegradable Polymer
A polymer gel developed by Dr Thilak Gunatillake, 2005, injected into damaged joint holds it together until it heals.
In 1925 Dr. M. Booth made an electronic pacemaker to regulate the human heart beat; a baby saved in 1928.
Sir Howard Florey made this medical breakthrough in 1939. The antibiotic combats many infections.
o) Relenza Flu Vaccine
CSIRO team led by Mark von Itzstein made first commercial neuraminidase inhibitor to fight flu in 1995.
p) Speedo Swimming Costume
Speedo company started by A. MacRae sold race back bathing costume, like female athletes today, in 1927.
q) Spray-on Skin
To help burns victims this breakthrough was developed in 1992 by Dr Fiona Wood of Royal Perth Hospital.
r) Stomach Ulcer Cure
B. Marshall & R. Warren found that two antibiotics used together cured stomach ulcers in 1982.
s) Tools for Microsurgery
E. R. Dwen founded the International MicrosurgicaI Society, designed first tools for Microsurgery in 1959.
Improved medicaI diagnosis. Device made in 1951 by D. Robinson & G. Kossoff at the Australian Dept of Health.
u) X-ray Phase Contrast Imaging
S. Wilkins, CSIRO, improved x-ray vision of ligaments, tendons, cartilage, nerves in the body 1990s.
v) Zinc Cream
Faulding Pharmaceuticals made sun protective ointment in 1940.
8. FOOD RELATED
This device was invented by Aboriginals long ago to hunt for food and use for ceremonial purposes.
b) Coolgardie Safe
Arthur McCormick used water evaporation from hessian in the breeze to make a cooling "safe" in 1892.
c) Icy Ball Kerosene Refrigerator
Edward Hallstrom invented the Icy Ball Kerosene Refrigerator (chest refrigeration) in 1923, Sydney.
In 1943 William McArthur joined a knife, fork and spoon in one utensil for ladies sitting outside at barbecues.
e) Stasharp Knife
In 1970 Denis Jackson of Wiltshire Knives made a knife & scabbard when withdrawn and sheathed re-sharpened.
f) Tank-Bred Tuna
Hagen Ster in 2008 fooled southern blue tuna breeding in a tank into believing they were swimming in the sea.
Food paste made from by-product of brewing process, yeast, was created in 1923 by Dr Cyril Callister.
h) Wine Casket (non-rigid)
Plastic-bag wine cask was made by Thomas Angove of SA in 1955. His son thought it was a silly idea at the time.
a) A4 DSP Chip
DigitaI SignaI Processing chip by CSIRO Radiophysics, Lake DSP & Accusound Pty Ltd for loud speakers,1980s.
b) Cineon DigitaI Film Workstation
This takes film images, improves them digitally, then puts them back into film format, by David Mann in 1990.
c) Clapper Board
Acting, sound and film were first synchronized by Frank Thring's wooden marker in the 1920s.
d) DigitaI Sampler (Pre-digitaI synthesizer)
It records non-music audio, then played back on keyboard, re-pitched to note,1979 by P. Vogel & K. Ryrie.
Instrument (sounds like an aeroplane) made by ancient Aboriginals from Eucalyptus wood hollowed by termites.
f) Feature Film
"The Story of the Kelly Gang" first full-length feature film. It was made in Australia by Charles Tait, in 1906.
An musing instrument of bottle tops nailed to a stick was adopted by "Bushwackers" band, 1952, Holbrook NSW.
h) Free Music Machine
Forerunner of the electric synthesizer produced pitches of long tones, Percy Granger composer/pianist in 1950s.
5. CONSUMER - TECHNICALLY SUPPORTED
This system from CSIRO in 1992 has a battery continually producing household electricity from natural gas
b) Chlor-Hercosett Shrink Proofing
Acid chlorine & sulphite strips wool off scales. Heated polymer resin smooths the fibre; CSIRO,1960s.
c) Contact Lens (Day & Night)
Cooperative Research Centre for Eye Research & Tech with CSIRO made disposable contact lenses, 1999.
Dr Robert Lee made non-counterfeitable banknotes: has optically variable device when viewed,1992, CSIRO.
e) Flammability Test
T. Pressley of CSIRO established safety tests for children's clothing in the 1970s: also fire retardant for cotton.
f) Garage Roller Door
This ubiquitous door was developed in 1956 by Black & Decker, Australia.
g) Latex Gloves (disposable for surgery)
These disposable gloves used in hospitals were first produced in 1964 by Ansell
h) Lessons by Radio
The Royal Flying Doctor Service began distance education by radio in 1951, improving education in the bush.
i) Letter Sorting Machine
The Postmaster GeneraI's Department used AustraIia's first mechanized letter sorter in 1930.
j) Multifocal Contact Lens
Developed by Stephen Newman in 1992, these lenses give clear vision at all distances for people with presbyopia.
k) Plastic Spectacle Lens
Scientific Optical Laboratories of Adelaide made light plastic lenses for glasses in 1960: Dr Miller of CSIRO.
l) Sirolan-BAP Shrink Proofing
Superwash CSIRO, 1970. Apply water-soluble bisulphate polyurethane resin and acrylic emulsion/urethane with pad.
m) Sirolan CF Fertilizer from Sheep
Wax and dirt washed away as sludge from raw wool using polymer inline flocculation to make compost, CSIRO 1998.
n) Softly Detergent
Tom Pressley at CSIRO began fabric softeners,1960s. Softly stops wool fabrics from hardening after hot washes.
CSIRO made a probe for GPs in 1998 to identify dangerous cancerous spots on the skin.
o) Si-Ro-Set (Siroset) Permanent Crease
Dr A. Farnworth of CSIRO developed the permanent pleat in wool trousers and skirts by using resin and heat in 1957.
It has benefits of synthetics with breathability and comfort of wool. Polyester outer on a layer of wool; CSIRO 1990s.
a) Calyx Drill
This special drill invented by Francis Davis in 1893 makes large holes in rock using chilled shot.
Coal is scanned as it moves along belts for quality control: Dr Nick Stokes of CSIRO in the 1980s.
c) Dethridge Wheel
John Derridge attaching eight vanes to a drum on an axle in 1910 to measure water.
d) Humespun Pipemaking (Homespun pipemaking)
Walter Humes made concrete pipes: spun wet concrete to the outside of wire reinforced molding, 1910.
This is a revolutionary method of smelting iron created by CSIRO, establishing a plant at Kwinana, WA in 2003.
f) HySSIL Building Material
DR Swee Liang Mak of CSIRO made aerated cement blocks (2000s) light, strong, fire resistant, insulating.
g) Instream Analyis
In 1972 Amdel Ltd enabled closer analysis of impurities in mineral slurries in recovery in the metal industry.
h) Repco Spinner
CSIRO's David Henshaw spun worsted yarn in the 1960s. It led to the Repco spinning machine, 1970s.
i) Thrust Bearing
Anthony Michell changed thrust technology, especially for driving ships, when he made this bearing in 1905.
Copper, lead & zinc refined efficiently by injecting gases in molten slag iron J. Floyd, CSIRO 1970s.
k) Solar Hot Water
In 1953 a CSIRO team led by Sir Roger N. Morse heated water from the hot rays of the sun.
l) T-Mag Magnesium Casting
CSIRO in 2007 made casting of light magnesium alloys: superior to steel, iron and aluminium castings.
Two propellered weapon made by Louis Brennan 1874 driven & steered by cables on winding engines ashore.
4. CONSUMER PRODUCTS
Dr Doug Waterhouse of CSIR0 gave the secret formula for the ingredient in fly spray to Aerogard in 1953.
b) Baby Safety Capsule
Rainfords began seling a capsule to secure a baby in a car by the vehicle's safety belt in 1984.
Furniture was moved around with the aid of domed casters from an idea in 1945 by George Shepherd.
d) Dual Flush Toilet
In 1980 Bruce Thompson of Caroma put two buttons on a toilet systern for different volumes of flushing water.
e) Electric Drill
The widely used electric drill came from a rock drill invented by A. J. Arnot (patent) and W. . Brain in 1889.
f) Frazier Lens
A lens by Jim Frazier in 1993 can be rotated without moving the camera, focuses on background & subject.
g) Hills Hoist
Rod frame for drying wet laundry on wire, G. Toyne in 1925: L. Hill added a winch and sold Hills Hoist in 1945.
h) Kiwi Shoe Polish
William Ramsay and Hamilton McI(eIlan developed a "paste" to clean shoes in 1904, marketed 1905.
This simple idea was put into practice in 1902 by J. A. Birchall of Launceston.
j) Pop Top Can
Drink can with a press-button opener which remained hinged to the can, hole for straw, M. Debenham in 1973.
Transmission of visual messages over wire was discovered by Henry Sutton from Ballarat in 1885.
l) Transverse Folding Stroller
A fold-away baby stroller was designed in 1942 by Harold Cornish.
m) Triton Workcentre
George Lewin made the multi-purpose workbench for doing work with portable tools in 1976.
n) Two-stroke Rotary Mower
The rotary mower was invented in 1952 by Mervyn Victor Richardson.
DQDB (Distributed-queue dual-bus networks)
a) R. Newman of the Univ. WA found an algorithm that combines data types for networks of cities, 1992.
b) Annodex DigitaI Media
This open source technology for audio and video from CSIRO was launched in 2007 at the Linux Conference.
c) Google Maps
Earth mapping software formulated by Lars & Jens Rasmusse perfected by a Sydney team in 2003.
d) Moldflow Software
Colin Austin's software, 1970-1978, shows computer simulations before set-up of molding machinery.
e) Panoptic Search Engine
Funnelback search engine, CSIRO in the 2000s, is efficient for searching large busiess organizations.
f) Samba Software
In 1992 Andrew Tridgell of ANU wrote software that enabled interoperability of PCs. and Unix.
g) seL4 Microkernal hack free
This new computer operating system kernal released in 2010 cannot be hacked, so internet banking is safe.
h) Touch Screen Keyboard
Virtual keyboard has keys with typing letters aligned to fingers of the hand, Christian Sachs & Hennes Lo. 2011.
i) Underwater Personal computer
Bruce Macdonald of AIMS created a hand-held computer with five keys for use underwater in 1993.
j) Uniloc Software Protection
This software locking system for software on trial was invented in Sydney by Ric Richardson in the 1990s
In 1996 a CSIRO team led by Dr John Sullivan created WiFi: Internet sourced without wires by computers.
a) Air Seeder
Sewing of seed made easier in 1955 when Albert Fuss of Dalby, Queensland, made an automatic seeder.
b) Bitter-pit Control
Research at CSIRO in the 1920s prevented bitter-pit, corky flecks on fruit. Fruit picked at a particular stage.
c) Black Disease Vaccine
Necrotic hepatitis is a bacterial infection in sheep. In 1930 Arthur Turner at CSIRo developed a vaccine.
d) Bollgard II Cotton
CSIRO's G. Constable and D. Llewellyn developed cotton resistant to the caterpillar helicoverpa in 2003.
e) Bovilis Vaccine
Shipping fever pneumonia kills half the cattle infected. Vaccine launched in 2004 by DR Prideaux of CSIRO.
f) Bovine Pleuropneumonia Vaccine
Arthur Turner at CSIRO in the 1970s discovered a vaccine treatment for bovine pleuropneumonia.
g) Buffalo Fly Trap
Cows walk through a plastic tent: flies attracted to light above cows, by Sutherst & Tozer CSIRO 1991.
h) Coast Disease Treatment
This wasting disease of sheep could be successfully treated with cobalt, 1930s by CSIRO.
i) Cloud Seeding
It was made to rain in 1947 using dry ice and silver iodine by CSIRO.
j) Combine Harvester
Machine to strip and collect grain invented by Hugh Victor McKay in 1882 at Drummartin, Victoria.
k) Cycloprothrin Insecticide
Nontoxic insect killer developed by CSIRO in the 1970s is used in Asia to control pests in rice paddies
l) Dynamic lifter Fertilizer
Norm Jennings had the job of packaging and distributing chicken as fertilizer in 1959. Yes, he patented it.
m) Gene Silencing Hairpin RNAi
CSIRO stopped particular genes from working in 1990s: new cattle breeds, irradiation of pests and diseases.
n) Grain Stripper Harvester
Machine separates grain from cereal then places it in bins invented in 1843 by John Ridley of South Australia.
o) Landguard Pesticide Residue Treatment
This enzyme based solution to pesticide contamination lowers organophosphate levels, by CSIRO in 2005,
p) Linola Stockfeed
Solin linseed stockfeed developed in 1992 by CSIRO, low alpha-linolenic (ALA) - improved storage properties.
q) Mechanical Wool Clipper
Frederick Wolseley finally put together a working sheep wool clipping machine in 1872 (registered 1887).
r) Merino Sheep Breeding
Dr Helen Newton Turner of CSIRO created an analytical technique for breeding Merino sheep in the 1950s.
s) Myxomatosis Rabbit Control (calicivirus)
Rabbits were almost totally controlled with the release of myxomatosis by CSIRO in 1950.
This new natural agriculture that replaces chemical based methods was formulated in 1972 by Bill Mollison.
u) Pneumatic Broadacre Air Seeder
A. Fuss of Dalby, Queensland, made a seeder that blows seeds onto planting tines of chisel plough in 1956.
v) Prickly Pear Control
Argentinian moth Cactoblastis Cactorum introduced by CSIRO in the 1920s to reduce prickly pear pest.
w) Rotary Hoe
Cliff Howard made a cultivating machine with rotating blades that was propelled by an engine in 1912.
x) Rust Control
Dr Jeff Ellis of CSIRO identified two genes that strengthen crops against rust fungi in the 1980s.
y) Salvinia Control
CSIRO release Weevil Cyrtobagus Salviniae into Lake Moondarra to control the waterweed salvinia in 1980.
z) SilviScan Wood Analysis
Dr Robert Evans at CSIRO headed a program to evaluate wood properties on plantations in the 2000s.
iia) Siratro Cattle Feed
This tropical legume developed in the 1940s by Jack Griffiths Davies at CSIRO fattened cattle very quickly.
iib) Sirex Wasp Control
R. Bedding CSIRO 1950s - Nematode unsegmented worms stopped sirex wasp killing pine trees.
iic) Sirolan FleeceScan (using laserscan)
Transportable instruments measure wool fiber for fineness at 100 fleeces per hour, CSIRO in 2000.
iid) Sirolan Laserscan
Fabrics are valued by their fineness. CSIRO perfected a laser in 2008 to measure a snippet of fiber for fineness.
iie) Sirospun Yarn Spinning
Simple equipment spins two-strand yarn together making it stronger in regard to centrifugal forces.
iif) Solospun Weaving Attachment
An attachment is fixed to a standard worsted spinning frame; it weaves single yarn as weft, 1998 by CSIRO.
iig) Stump Jump Plow
A plough that could jump over stumps in fields was made by Richard and Clarence Bowyer Smith in 1876.
iih) Twinsplicer Yarn Spinning (sirospun)
Yarn ends are mechanically spliced together. It superceded knotting of yarn, CSIRO in 1981.